Source Assessment of Fluoride in Groundwater: A case study of Siloam Village, Limpopo South Africa

Authors: Tobiloba Onipe*, University of Venda, John Ogony Odiyo, University of Venda
Topics: Water Resources and Hydrology, Earth Science, Environment
Keywords: Fluorosis, Groundwater Fluoride, Natural contaminant, Natural hazard, SubSahara Africa
Session Type: Paper
Day: 4/14/2018
Start / End Time: 2:00 PM / 3:40 PM
Room: Poydras, Sheraton, 3rd Floor
Presentation File: No File Uploaded


Fluoride is an inorganic anion often found in surface and groundwater in all regions of the world. However, over 260 million people are exposed to water with high fluoride concentration above the 1.5 mg/L permissible limit set by WHO. Siloam village in the Northern province of South Africa is one many locations with high groundwater fluoride in Africa. A Source assessment was carried out to determine the possible source of the extensive fluoride contamination. The hydro-geochemical assessment shows that the dominant water type in the area is Na-Cl and this is influenced by base exchange process. The geological factor responsible for the groundwater enrichment is rock-water interaction caused by long residence time. The fluoride profile shows a downward decrease in fluoride concentration towards the aquifer as opposing the downward increase per depth. This study clearly reveals that Smectite clay and kaolin deposit are the major sources of fluoride in the groundwater of the village.

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