Identifying urban development patterns by integrating 2D and 3D landscape models

Authors: Yun Zhao*, Oklahoma State University, Peter kedron, Department of Geography, Oklahoma State University, Amy Frazier, Department of Gepgraphy, Oklahoma State University
Topics: Land Use, Remote Sensing, Urban Geography
Keywords: 3D metric, lidar, urban, Oklahoma
Session Type: Paper
Day: 4/12/2018
Start / End Time: 8:00 AM / 9:40 AM
Room: Lafayette, Marriott, River Tower Elevators, 41st Floor
Presentation File: No File Uploaded


Global inter-city competition and a need for sustainability are diversifying the development trajectories of cities and renewing the importance of understanding their spatial structure. To assess the spatial patterns of urban development and support planning policies, various spatial metrics have been developed as quantitative measures to capture a city’s physical form. Mirroring urban development patterns of the 20th century, current metrics tend to characterize urban structural change as a process of spatial expansion, interspersion, and densification played out primarily in two dimensions, while changes in the vertical dimension are often left out due to difficulties in data acquisition. Recent developments in 3D data acquisition techniques, such as lidar, have made vertical data cheaper and more accessible. With the increasingly available 3D data, there is an urgent need to develop three-dimensional metrics capable of differentiating urban spatial structures at the vertical direction, as well as to link those metrics to the factors and processes responsible for urban development patterns. Failing to capture all dimensions of urban form limits our ability to identify the causes of urban change and hampers the effectiveness of policies designed to address new patterns of urban growth and emerging sustainability challenges. In this study, we develop 3D spatial metrics that integrate measurements of urban form changes in both the horizontal and vertical directions. Combining with socio-economic data, we also establish connections between the 3D metrics and underlying urban dynamics by carrying out comparative studies in Oklahoma City and Tulsa in Oklahoma.

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