Spatio-Temporal Analyses of Stop, Question, and Frisk (SQF) in New York City 2006-2016

Authors: Haemi Won*, State University of New York at Albany, Shiguo Jiang, State University of New York at Albany
Topics: Spatial Analysis & Modeling, Quantitative Methods, Social Geography
Keywords: Stop,Question and Frisk, School Segregation, K Function
Session Type: Paper


Although there is a dramatic crime decline in New York City since the 1990s, the extent to which this has been attributable to New York Police Department (NYPD)'s Stop, Question, and Frisk policy is controversial. In spite of the controversies of SQFs, practicing SQFs is still a fundamental and principal routine activity for street level police officers to prevent crimes and face to face police-citizen interaction at front line. This research will use univariate Ripley’s K-function to analyze spatial patterns of all SQFs and SQFs resulting in an arrest. And then, this study will use bivariate Ripley’s K-function which is a promising approach to examine the spatio-temporal patterns of all SQFs and SQFs resulting in an arrest over 10 years. Additionally, this research assumed that there is different pattern of all SQFs and SQFs resulting in an arrest by a suspect’s race. Therefore, this study hypothesizes that all SQFs and SQFs resulting in an arrest might have spatial dependence and it might be different by race. For the period of study, most previous research examined the SQF’s patterns before (or including) 2011. According to New York Civil Liberties Union, after 2011, the SQF declined significantly. This study will compare the results for the two periods: 2006-2011 and 2012-2016. Finally, the implications of the findings and limitations will be discussed.

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