Effectiveness of State Managed and Community Managed Protected Areas in Meeting Local Needs in Ghana

Authors: Jesse Ayivor*, , Ted Yemoh Annang, University of Ghana, Benjamin D Ofori, University of Ghana, John Edem Akubia, University of Ghana
Topics: Environment
Keywords: Protected areas, community managed, state managed, management effectiveness, Ghana.
Session Type: Paper
Day: 4/12/2018
Start / End Time: 10:00 AM / 11:40 AM
Room: Muses, Sheraton, 8th Floor
Presentation File: No File Uploaded

Designation and management of protected areas is an important strategy for in-situ biodiversity conservation. The role local communities play in the management of these areas, the benefits they derive and the problems encountered through the management process largely depend on protected area governance type. This study sought to compare the effectiveness of two protected area governance types (community-managed and state-managed protected areas) in achieving biodiversity conservation goals and enhancing local livelihoods in Ghana. In order to do this, we randomly administered 300 questionnaires among selected protected area fringe community members in four regions of Ghana. The results showed that community managed protected areas were generally small and targeted mostly single species, which are regarded as traditional totems, whereas state-managed protected areas were relatively more extensive and contained a full range of diversity of species. Though both protected area governance types contribute immensely towards national tourism development, community managed protected areas were more beneficial in terms of revenue generation to meet collective local needs. Direct economic benefit to individual community members, however, remained statistically insignificant in both governance types. This situation poses a major threat to management effectiveness of the protected area-system in Ghana, against the backdrop of increasing pressure on land-based resources and breakdown of traditional beliefs. The study recommends effective legislation to enforce compliance in community managed protected areas, while advocating law enforcement in state managed areas alongside equitable benefit sharing to ensure full local participation in the management process.

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