Mapping household-level interactions of space-time interpolated nutritional environments in the Galápagos

Authors: Khristopher Nicholas*, UNC Chapel Hill, Department of Nutrition; Carolina Population Center, Chapel Hill, NC, Paul Delamater, UNC Chapel Hill, Department of Geography; Carolina Population Center, Chapel Hill, NC, Amanda Thompson, UNC Chapel Hill, Department of Anthropology and Department of Nutrition; Carolina Population Center, Chapel Hill, NC, Peggy Bentley, UNC Chapel Hill, Department of Nutrition; Carolina Population Center, Chapel Hill, NC, Enrique TerĂ¡n, Universidad San Francisco de Quito, Colegio de Ciencias de la Salud, Quito, Ecuador
Topics: Medical and Health Geography, Temporal GIS, Latin America
Keywords: food security, social determinants of health spatiotemporal analysis, people-based GIS, BME geostatistics,
Session Type: Paper
Day: 4/6/2019
Start / End Time: 3:05 PM / 4:45 PM
Room: Truman, Marriott, Mezzanine Level
Presentation File: No File Uploaded

Food security, measured as having adequate access to nutritious and affordable foods, is an evolving metric that changes across space and time. However, analyses of spatiotemporal changes in food security and how households navigate these environments are lacking. San Cristóbal Island imports much of its food supply by barge, including fruits and vegetables (F/V), introducing potential food insecurity in periods of shipment delays or F/V seasonality. Adapting the Nutritional Environmental Measure (NEM) for tiendas (NEM-T), a space-time interpolated map of market-level NEM-T scores is modeled in San Cristóbal using the Bayesian maximum entropy (BME) method of modern spatiotemporal geostatistics. Next, household interactions with this interpolated environment are analyzed using household-level data on food purchasing habits, transportation, market preferences, and income constraints. Lastly, we test for associations in patterns among these interactions and household-level health outcomes. Preliminary spatial interpolation results indicate potential clustering of high NEM-T scores near the municipal F/V market and low scores in tourism-heavy areas near the shoreline. Spatiotemporal interpolations of nutritional environments using NEM-T scores in the Galápagos context shed light on spatial variation in food access and quality while capturing changes in time associated with seasonality of F/V and food shipment delays. Lastly, a people-based GIS analysis of household-level interactions with their built environments is useful not only to contextualize household decision-making, but also can be analyzed alongside biomarker data to assess health implications of nutritional environments in the context of the dual burden of health.

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