Authors: Israel Ropo Orimoloye*, Centre for Environmental Management, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa, Olusola O Ololade, Centre for Environmental Management, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa
Topics: Environmental Science, Geographic Information Science and Systems, Remote Sensing
Keywords: Land Use Dynamics; mining activities; environmental monitoring; degraded area, RS and GIS
Session Type: Paper
Presentation File: No File Uploaded
Mining generates various environmental, social, and economic impacts that can be assessed spatially using GIS and RS technology. The mining process is one of the human activities that change the natural with various impacts. This aimed at assessing the current environmental degradation and land-use dynamics using RS and RS techniques with the aid of Landsat 5 for years 1984, 1994, 2004 and Landsat 8 for 2014 and 2019 obtained from USGS and Remote Pixel Databases and processed using ArcGIS 10.4 and Rstudio. The result from the study shown the current changes and how the changes have evolved over the years where tailing and built-up areas witnessed increment from 90.5 km2 to 172.9 km2 in year 1984 and 2019 respectively while mine effluent and water bodies increased from 14.7 to 18.8 km2 during the same period. More importantly, the area experienced increased vegetation from 342.5 to 371.1 km2 in the same period which connotes the area has witnessed reclamation success in terms of vegetation increased in the area. The results further revealed the vegetation health utilising some vegetation indices such as Normalised Difference Moisture Index (NDMI), Normalized Difference Impervious Surface Index (NDISI) and Global Environmental Monitoring Index (GEMI). These indices revealed the spatial-temporal patterns of different land-use dynamics. For instance, the area with low or negative values in GEMI and NDISI connote degraded zone while the areas with -1 or zero values of NDMI reveal areas that are prone to environmental injustice including mining and other human activities.