Measuring Bandwidth Uncertainty in Multiscale Geographically Weighted Regression Using Akaike Weights

Authors: Ziqi Li*, Spatial Analysis Research Center, School of Geographical Sciences and Urban Planning, Arizona State University, USA, A. Stewart Fotheringham, Spatial Analysis Research Center, School of Geographical Sciences and Urban Planning, Arizona State University, USA, Taylor Oshan, Center for Geospatial Information Science, Department of Geographical Sciences, University of Maryland, USA , Levi Wolf, School of Geographical Sciences, University of Bristol, UK
Topics: Spatial Analysis & Modeling
Keywords: spatial analysis, multi-scale, gwr, spatial scale, Akaike weight, model selection uncertainty
Session Type: Paper
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Bandwidth, a key parameter in geographically weighted regression models, is closely related to the spatial scale at which the underlying spatially heterogeneous processes being examined take place. Generally, a single optimal bandwidth (geographically weighted regression) or a set of covariate-specific optimal bandwidths (multiscale geographically weighted regression) is chosen based on some criterion such as the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) and then parameter estimation and inference are conditional on the choice of this bandwidth. In this paper, we find that bandwidth selection is subject to uncertainty in both single-scale and multi-scale geographically weighted regression models and demonstrate that this uncertainty can be measured and accounted for. Based on simulation studies and an empirical example of obesity rates in Phoenix, we show that bandwidth uncertainties can be quantitatively measured by Akaike weights, and confidence intervals for bandwidths can be obtained. Understanding bandwidth uncertainty offers important insights about the scales over which different processes operate, especially when comparing covariate-specific bandwidths. Additionally, unconditional parameter estimates can be computed based on Akaike weights accounts for bandwidth selection uncertainty.

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