Spatial Disparity in Gendered Industry Across Us Counties, 2000-2017

Authors: Madhuri Sharma*, University of Tennessee, Knoxville
Topics: Economic Geography, Ethnic Geography, Population Geography
Keywords: Gendered-industry; Human Capital Resources; Neoclassical Economics; Market Labor Segmentation; Location Quotients
Session Type: Virtual Paper
Day: 4/11/2021
Start / End Time: 9:35 AM / 10:50 AM
Room: Virtual 25
Presentation File: No File Uploaded

This paper analyses the spatial distribution and disparity patterns of gender-representation across major industry-types in the counties of USA. Existing theories of Human Capital Resources, Neoclassical Economics and Market Labor Segmentation have been used in academic research to help explain such patterns of gendered over/under-representation across industry-types. Among various reasons of female over-representation include the feminine definition of specific industries and/or the overall historical patterns largely attributable to the human capital resource of the gender. In this paper, I use county scale data for gender-by-industry from the MPC’s NHGIS historical data source for 2000 and 2013-2017 five year estimates for descriptive statistics, bivariate correlations, and computations of location quotients (LQ) by gendered-industry for both years, 2000 and 2017, and its change during the 2000-2017. Preliminary findings suggest women being far less represented in almost all types of industries, even though significant gains have occurred during 2000-2017 in several traditionally male-dominated industries such as primary, secondary/blue collar economic sectors, as well as in professional/scientific and other service industries. A visual analysis of the LQ maps illustrate gendered gaps in industry-based location quotients across U.S. counties. However, deeper analysis of industry-based LQ variation among each gender-type further highlights the gendered variations among and within industries, and the spatial distribution patterns of these over/under-representations across industry-types highlight important elements of region-specific cultural, historical and economic specializations. This analysis provides insights into a critical need for place-based policies that can create opportunities for including women in typical male-dominated industries.

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