Exploring the utility of social-ecological and entomological risk factors for dengue infection as surveillance indicators in the dengue hyper-endemic city of Machala, Ecuador

Authors: Catherine A Lippi*, Quantitative Disease Ecology and Conservation (QDEC) Lab Group, Department of Geography, University of Florida, Anna M Stewart-Ibarra, Inter-American Institute for Global Change Research, Department of Montevideo, Montevideo, Uruguay, Timothy P Endy, Institute for Global Health and Translational Studies, State University of New York (SUNY) Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, New York, Mark Abbott, Institute for Global Health and Translational Studies, State University of New York (SUNY) Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, New York, Cinthya Cueva, Institute for Global Health and Translational Studies, State University of New York (SUNY) Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, New York, Froilán Heras, Institute for Global Health and Translational Studies, State University of New York (SUNY) Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, New York, Mark Polhemus , Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI), Washington, D.C., Efraín Beltrán-Ayala , Universidad Técnica de Machala, Machala, Ecuador, Sadie J Ryan, Quantitative Disease Ecology and Conservation (QDEC) Lab Group, Department of Geography, University of Florida
Topics: Medical and Health Geography, Health and Medical, South America
Keywords: Dengue, Aedes, Ecuador
Session Type: Virtual Poster
Day: 4/11/2021
Start / End Time: 11:10 AM / 12:25 PM
Room: Virtual 8
Presentation File: No File Uploaded


The management of mosquito-borne diseases is a challenge in southern coastal Ecuador, where dengue is hyper-endemic. In this study, we bring together entomological and epidemiological data to describe links between social-ecological factors associated with risk of dengue transmission at the household level in Machala, Ecuador. Household surveys were conducted from 2014–2017 to assess the presence of adult Aedes aegypti (collected via aspiration) and to enumerate housing conditions, demographics, and mosquito prevention behaviors. Household-level dengue infection status was determined by laboratory diagnostics in 2014–2015. Bivariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify social-ecological variables associated with household presence of female Ae. aegypti and household dengue infection status. Aedes aegypti presence was associated with interruptions in water service and weekly trash collection, and household air conditioning was protective against mosquito presence. Presence of female Ae. aegypti was not associated with household dengue infections. We identified shaded patios and head of household employment status as risk factors for household-level dengue infection, while window screening in good condition was identified as protective against dengue. These findings add to our understanding of the systems of mosquito-borne disease transmission in Machala, and in the larger region of southern Ecuador, aiding in the development of improved vector surveillance efforts, and targeted interventions.

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