Practices along the risk-crisis continuum: reconceptualizing geographies of risk and crisis

Type: Virtual Paper
Theme: Hazards, Risks, and Disasters Specialty Group Curated Track
Sponsor Groups: Hazards, Risks, and Disasters Specialty Group
Poster #:
Day: 4/7/2021
Start / End Time: 9:35 AM / 10:50 AM (PDT)
Room: Virtual 7
Organizers: Valerie November, Cassandre Rey-Thibault
Chairs: Valerie November

Call for Submissions

Possible topics for this issue could include (but are not limited to):
- Empirical focus on examples of cohabitation and collaboration of different actors, with
diverging approaches on risks and crises. Their difficulties or successes.
- The production, circulation, selection of knowledge, especially about hazards and
vulnerabilities.
- The use of the notion of resilience in risk prevention and emergency management practices.
- The depth of this division to understand the risk/crisis management organization.
- Focus on “transversal actors” who undertake the full scope of actions, from risk assessment,
to prevention, preparation and intervention when risk events occur; or on “transversal risk
situations”, where those division of action are not as clear.
- Public reception, perception and representation of those divisions, as well as their
involvement.
- Methodological aspects to analyze the relations to interrogate the risk-crisis continuum; risk
prevention – emergency preparedness – emergency management.

Please submit your abstract (250 words max) plus AAG PIN (Personal Identification Number, obtained
after registration for the conference at the AAG website) to cassandre.rey-thibault@enpc.fr and
valerie.november@enpc.fr by November 16th, 2020.


Description

Geography has deeply contributed to develop the conceptualization of risks, at the intersection of
various hazards and physical, human, social vulnerabilities. Initial analysis of catastrophes and risks
situations are now complemented with a focus on crisis situation, which were previously studied by
sociologists and anthropologists (Quarantelli 1978). How do geographers switch between risks and
crisis analysis? Are the two objects readily connected?
Several scholars have pointed out a split of the professional field, between those in charge of risk
assessment, evaluation and prevention, and those specialized in emergency management and
preparations in the case of extreme events that could lead to crisis (Lakoff 2007; Revet 2020). This
division encompasses two very different approaches: one that consists of favoring saving lives during
hazardous events, and another that emphasizes the far-reaching changes to conduct outside of the
hazardous events. ”(Revet 2011, 45). This can lead to concurrence between the different expertise
involved (Cabane & Revet 2015), and sometimes competition for public attention and funding (Lakoff
2007), or even agencies who end up only dealing internally leading to a lack of accountability
(Sapountzaki & al. 2011). By contrast, the Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) perspectives emphasize their
complementary nature, both leading to the same results: strengthened resilience. This very notion of
resilience promoted both by risk and emergency managers (Comfort 2010, Reghezza 2012), could led
to the reconciliation of the aforementioned perspectives.
In fact, “risk prevention” and “crisis management” intersect in several concerns and actions. For
example, the lack of risk conscience is often considered as a source of individual and community
vulnerabilities (Slovic 2016), but the solutions implemented are often ones of preparedness. As a
result, the various risk communication interventions, far from being consistent, differ in objectives and
recommendations, that could even be contradictory (Demeritt et Nobert 2014; Demeritt et al., s. d.).
Wouldn’t it be possible to frame this question around the continuity between risk and crisis
management?
Risk and crisis also intersect in the spaces and time frames within which they are constructed and
implemented. Risks have a complex relationship to territory, as they are not just distributed across
spaces, but shape and connect them with other spaces, as well as with human and non-human actors
(November 2008). What are the links between the spatial dimensions of a crisis and crisis management
when they are composed of different types of space : the ones with resources, and the ones affected
by the crisis itself (D’Ercole & al. 2009) ? Do risk and crisis management practices plan for the same
future (Anderson 2010)? The notion of “riskscape” has been proposed to describe the spatial and
temporal dynamics of risks and crises (Muller-Mahn 2012, Neisser & Runkel 2017). Does it help us to
understand the intricate link between risks and crises?
Risk and crisis perspectives also deal differently with the notion of uncertainty. Risk, as risk prevention,
tries to minimize the remaining uncertainty, and therefore may sometimes struggle to find operative
solutions to the “new risks” of climate change (such as peak flood flows or coastal submersion linked
to rise of the sea level) (Kuklicke & Demeritt 2016). The inherent tensions between risk-based
prevention and remaining uncertainties may be reduced with the collaboration of emergency
managers (as uncertainty is a key feature of crisis) (Boin & Lagadec 2000).
This session aims to focus specifically on this division to explore the frontiers and fringes of those
different approaches to dangers (risk and crisis), the ways they co-exist and co-evolve. We welcome
theoretical as well as empirically grounded papers on any types of risks or crises.

Possible topics for this issue could include (but are not limited to):
- Empirical focus on examples of cohabitation and collaboration of different actors, with
diverging approaches on risks and crises. Their difficulties or successes.
- The production, circulation, selection of knowledge, especially about hazards and
vulnerabilities.
- The use of the notion of resilience in risk prevention and emergency management practices.
- The depth of this division to understand the risk/crisis management organization.
- Focus on “transversal actors” who undertake the full scope of actions, from risk assessment,
to prevention, preparation and intervention when risk events occur; or on “transversal risk
situations”, where those division of action are not as clear.
- Public reception, perception and representation of those divisions, as well as their
involvement.
- Methodological aspects to analyze the relations to interrogate the risk-crisis continuum; risk
prevention – emergency preparedness – emergency management.

Cited references:
Anderson, Ben. 2010. « Preemption, Precaution, Preparedness: Anticipatory Action and Future
Geographies ». Progress in Human Geography 34 (6): 777‑98.
Boin, Arjen, and Patrick Lagadec. 2000. « Preparing for the Future: Critical Challenges in Crisis
Management ». Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management 8 (4): 185‑91.
Cabane, Lydie, and Sandrine Revet. 2015. « La cause des catastrophes: Concurrences scientifiques et
actions politiques dans un monde transnational ». Politix n° 111 (3): 47.
Demeritt, David, and Sebastien Nobert. 2014. « Models of Best Practice in Flood Risk Communication
and Management ». Environmental Hazards 13 (4): 313‑28.
Demeritt, David, Elisabeth M Stephens, Laurence Créton-Cazanave, Céline Lutoff, and Sébastien
Nobert. 2016. « Communicating and Using Ensemble Flood Forecasts in Flood Incident
Management: Lessons from Social Science », in Handbook of Hydrometeorological Ensemble
Forecasting, Springer.
D’Ercole, Robert, Sébastien Hardy, Pascale Metzger, Jérémy Robert, and Pauline Gluski. 2012. « Les
dimensions spatiales et territoriales de la gestion de crise à Lima ». VertigO, no Volume 12
Numéro 1 (juin).
Kuklicke, Christian, and David Demeritt. 2016. « Adaptive and Risk-Based Approaches to Climate
Change and the Management of Uncertainty and Institutional Risk: The Case of Future
Flooding in England ». Global Environmental Change 37 (mars): 56‑68.
Lakoff, A. 2007. « Preparing for the Next Emergency ». Public Culture 19 (2): 247‑71.
Leone, Frédéric, and Freddy Vinet. 2011. « La vulnérabilité, un concept fondamental au coeur des
méthodes d’évaluation des risques naturels ». In Vulnérabilité des sociétés et territoires face
aux menaces naturelles, Presses universitaires de la Méditerranée, 140.
November, Valérie. 2002. Les territoires du risque : le risque comme object de réflexion géographique.
Bern ; New York: P. Lang.
November, Valerie. 2008. « Spatiality of Risk ». Environment and Planning A: Economy and Space 40
(7):
Quarantelli, Enrico Louis. 1978. Disasters: Theory and Research. Sage Publications.
Revet, Sandrine. 2011. « Penser et affronter les désastres : un panorama des recherches en sciences
sociales et des politiques internationales ». Critique internationale 52 (3): 157.
———. 2020. Disasterland: An Ethnography of the International Disaster Community. The Sciences Po
Series in International Relations and Political Economy. Palgrave Macmillan.
Robert, Jérémy. 2013. « Pour une géographie de la gestion de crise : de l’accessibilité aux soins
d’urgence à la vulnérabilité du territoire à Lima ». Université de Grenoble.
Sapountzaki, Kalliopi, Sylvia Wanczura, Gabriella Casertano, Stefan Greiving, Gavriil Xanthopoulos,
and Floriana F. Ferrara. 2011. « Disconnected Policies and Actors and the Missing Role of
Spatial Planning throughout the Risk Management Cycle ». Natural Hazards 59 (3): 1445‑74.
Slovic, Paul. 2016. The Perception of Risk. Routledge.


Agenda

Type Details Minutes Start Time
Presenter Lena Grip*, Karlstad University, Incorporating the Swedish tourism sector in crisis management and communication – methods and strategies for preparedness and collaboration in rural areas 15 9:35 AM
Presenter Cassandre Rey-Thibault*, LATTS, Overtaking the segmentation between risk prevention and crises management in French cities. 15 9:50 AM
Presenter Riva Denny*, University of Michigan, A. Paige Fischer, University of Michigan, Wildfire risk perceptions and responses over time: A panel study in Oregon, USA 15 10:05 AM
Presenter Valerie November*, CNRS/LATTS, Paris, France, Erin Hughey, Pacific Disaster Center, Hawaï, USA, Todd Bosse, Pacific Disaster Center, Hawaï, USA, Drawing the line along the risk-crisis continuum with DisasterAware 15 10:20 AM
Presenter Eric Spears*, Columbus State University, Sea Level Rise and Vulnerability in Coastal Georgia: the Case for Critical Physical Geography 15 10:35 AM

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